Airline Pilot Salary – Captain Vs Co Pilot Salary

Due to the pilot shortage, airlines are starting to pay their pilots more. This includes flight time, per flight pay and housing allowance.

Pilots also receive vacation time and employer-sponsored health, life and disability insurance. They can also earn money by working overtime for their airline. This can boost their salary by thousands of pounds or dollars a year.

The Basics

There are two pilots on board a flight in the United States: a captain and a co-pilot. The captain is in charge and has the ultimate responsibility for passenger safety. The co-pilot assists the captain and takes over if the captain has to take time off for an emergency or other reason. Co-pilots usually receive lower salaries than captains.

Airline pilots are paid a salary based on the number of hours they fly each month. Their hourly rate varies depending on the aircraft type and airline. Jobs flying jet aircraft pay more than propellor aircraft, and long-haul positions pay better than short-haul.

Pilots can also earn extra money by working overtime, which can boost their annual wage to tens of thousands of pounds or dollars. Additionally, most airlines offer generous benefits such as health, dental, and vision insurance for their employees. This is especially true during the current pilot shortage, when many regional airlines are offering signing bonuses to attract qualified commercial pilots.


The rank of a pilot is important in the aviation industry because it reflects their seniority. A captain is considered to be the leader of the flight deck and is in charge of the aircraft and its occupants. This is why airline pilots wear stripes on their uniforms to avoid confusion over responsibilities and roles.

As a general rule, airlines pay a higher salary for captains than first officers. Airline pilot salaries increase with each year of experience and are based on the amount of flight hours they log. This is why it is common for pilots to start their careers at regional airlines before moving on to major airlines.

Airline pilots are required to have a minimum of 40 hours flying time in order to be eligible for vacation, sick leave and overtime. Depending on their rank, pilots may earn a daily guarantee. These guaranteed amounts vary from company to company. However, in some cases, pilots receive a bonus for meeting certain requirements, such as being a captain.


To become a pilot, you must have a bachelor’s degree in aviation or an equivalent level of flight training. Additionally, you must have a commercial pilot’s license from the FAA and an airline transport pilot certificate.

Most airlines operate on a seniority-based system, so your career progression will depend on how long you’ve been with the company. A junior pilot who has been flying for several years may upgrade to captain before a more experienced first officer with less time in the cockpit.

As a pilot, you will spend significant amounts of time away from home. This is especially true if you fly long-haul routes that take you across multiple time zones. You’ll also be expected to stay overnight at some points on these flights to ensure you’re fresh for your next shift in the cockpit. Fortunately, this schedule typically comes with generous travel benefits and vacation. In addition, most airlines offer a minimum daily guarantee, so you’ll always earn at least the hourly rate of your rank.


Airline pilots typically don’t get paid a regular salary but are instead compensated by the airline based on their flight hours. This is why it’s incredibly important for aspiring pilots to fly with the right airline.

Regional airlines typically pay less than major carriers but are a necessary step for up-and-coming pilots to gain the experience required to make it to the big leagues. Once a pilot gains seniority they will receive yearly pay rises as they move through the ranks of first officer, senior first officer, and finally captain.

In addition to a generous salary, airlines also offer excellent travel benefits and healthcare for their flight crews. All of these perks add up and can significantly boost a pilot’s salary. However, many pilots do not pursue careers in aviation for the money. They do it for a more intangible reason that is often rooted deep within their psyche. Having pilots in the family or inspiring stories of military missions can be a strong motivating factor.

Proceed to further reading

Baseball, America’s pastime, captivates millions worldwide with its blend of strategy and athleticism. While originally an American phenomenon, its influence has stretched across oceans, making it increasingly common for fans to seek out MLB중계 (MLB broadcasts) in their own language. In South Korea, for example, the passion for baseball is as fervent as anywhere in the world. This has led to a significant demand for MLB중계 in Korean, providing a way for fans to follow their favorite teams and players.

As the crack of the bat echoes in stadiums thousands of miles away, Korean fans are huddled in front of screens big and small. They’re not just passive spectators; they’re engaged in every pitch, every hit, and every breathtaking moment that unfolds during an MLB game. A player’s home run isn’t just a point on the scoreboard—it’s a communal triumph that resonates across continents.

Korean broadcasters have honed the art of delivering these moments with precision and flair. Consider the experience of tuning into an MLB중계. The play-by-play commentary flows seamlessly in melodious Korean, peppered with familiar baseball jargon. The color commentary provides context, spinning tales of player histories, and dissecting strategies. All this is to say nothing of the advanced graphics and stats that populate the screen, offering up a bevy of information for novices and aficionados alike.

Yet, this is no mere translation of American broadcasts. It’s a reinterpretation, making every game relatable to a Korean audience. Cultural nuances are carefully threaded through the commentary, connecting the American game with Korean sensibilities. It bridges the gap between East and West, between fastball and 빠른 공.

In conclusion, the demand for MLB중계 in Korean is more than a hunger for sport; it’s a sign of the game’s global reach and the universal appeal of its narrative—heroes and rivals, triumphs and heartbreaks. It’s a connection that turns foreign athletes into household names and distant stadiums into local hangouts.


1. What is MLB중계?
MLB중계 refers to the Korean-language broadcast of Major League Baseball games.

2. Why is MLB중계 popular in Korea?
MLB중계 is popular in Korea due to the widespread love for baseball in the country and the presence of Korean players in the MLB, raising interest in the sport.

3. How can I watch MLB중계 in Korea?
MLB중계 can be watched through Korean broadcasting services that offer sports channels or via online streaming platforms providing access to live MLB games.

4. Do MLB중계 broadcasters speak only in Korean?
Yes, Korean MLB broadcasts are typically delivered entirely in Korean to cater to the native-speaking audience.

5. Are there any Korean MLB players that have increased the popularity of MLB중계?
Yes, several successful Korean baseball players, such as Hyun-Jin Ryu and Kim Kwang-Hyun, have contributed to the mounting popularity of MLB broadcasts in Korea.…

Diving into the realm of online entertainment, a particular highlight that often goes unnoticed is the 메이저놀이터 – or, for those not versed in Korean, the major playground. This term not only resonates with the echo of joy and laughter but also harbors a universe of digital experiences that sit snugly at the intersection of thrill and safety.

In our digitally-driven world, the 메이저놀이터 is not just a physical space. It leaps beyond, manifesting as a premier online platform where endless games and adventures await with the promise of robust security and fair play. Imagine a space where the vibrancy of a fairground meets the fierce energy of a gaming console, with the added allure of potential winnings.

Exactly what makes a 메이저놀이터 stand out in the crowded market of online leisure hubs? It’s the unwavering commitment to user safety, ensuring that personal information remains ironclad and financial transactions are seamless and secure. This platform does not merely exist. It thrives, fostering communities where gamers, adventurers, and thrill-seekers converge.

At the heart of the 메이저놀이터 experience is the technology that makes it all tick. Advanced encryption protocols ensure that data breaches are a specter of the past. Furthermore, a commitment to fair play guarantees that each spin of the wheel or shuffle of the cards is governed by the iron hand of random number generation algorithms.

But it’s not all serious business – the 메이저놀이터 is a playground, after all. It’s a kaleidoscope of excitement, with vibrant graphics and heart-pounding soundtracks. From classic card games to cutting-edge slots, each interface is designed to keep the user transfixed, engaged, and constantly coming back for more.

Moreover, life at a 메이저놀이터 is sprinkled with rewards. Loyalty points, bonus spins, and jackpot rounds are the cherries on top, sweetening the pot and making each visit a potentially lucrative venture.

As we reach the conclusion of this digital odyssey, it becomes clear that a 메이저놀이터 is more than a mere escape from reality. It is a meticulously crafted universe, designed to protect while it entertains, to secure while it exhilarates. Behind each game, each reward, each click, lies an infrastructure built with care and the intent to deliver a top-tier experience.


Q1: What is a 메이저놀이터?
A1: 메이저놀이터 translates to “major playground” and refers to top-tier online entertainment platforms known for exceptional security measures, a wide array of games, and robust user experiences.

Q2: How does 메이저놀이터 ensure user safety?
A2: 메이저놀이터 employs state-of-the-art encryption and fair play policies, alongside reputable payment processing systems, to protect user data and financial transactions.

Q3: Are there rewards for playing at a 메이저놀이터?
A3: Yes, users often enjoy various rewards like loyalty points, bonus spins, and access to special jackpot rounds.

Q4: Can 메이저놀이터 be accessed globally?
A4: While many 메이저놀이터 platforms cater to a global audience, it’s important to check the specific services available in your region due to varying online gambling regulations.

Q5: What types of games can be found at a 메이저놀이터?
A5: A 메이저놀이터 usually offers a wide selection of games, including slots, card games, table games, and sometimes even live dealer experiences, providing a rich and diverse gaming environment.

Engaging with a 메이저놀이터 is entering a narrative of your own craft, where each moment is an invitation to write an epic tale of joy, risk, and the pursuit of the next thrilling chapter in your online adventure.…

Baseball, America’s pastime, has fascinated fans for over a century with its intricate blend of strategy, skill, and athleticism. The excitement of baseball extends far beyond the borders of the United States, captivating audiences worldwide. This is where the transformative power of technology comes into play, allowing fans across the globe to tune into live broadcasts, known in Korean as mlb중계.

Imagine settling into your most comfortable chair, a snack within arm’s reach, as you prepare to watch your favorite MLB team. The pitcher takes the mound, the batter clenches his bat, and you’re transported right into the heart of the action. The thrill is no longer confined to the stadium. It’s in your living room, it’s on your mobile device; it’s at your fingertips anytime, anywhere. All it takes is a click on a link like and you’re part of the game as if you were sitting behind home plate.

The anticipation builds with each pitch. Will it be a curveball, a slider, or a fastball hurtling towards home plate at dizzying speeds? Baseball’s charm lies in such moments of unpredictability. It’s a game where a millisecond can make all the difference, a game where patience and explosive power coexist. You witness a player on first base taking a lead, the silent duel between the pitcher and the runner, a dance of strategy and risk. This is the beauty of baseball, and it’s this uncertainty and spontaneity that makes watching a live game so enthralling.

Moreover, watching MLB games live allows for a collective experience. Every cheer, groan, and sigh is a testament to the shared human emotions sports evoke. When streamed live, games become social anchors, moments where time zones blur and fans unite in their love for the game.

As the game unfolds, you’re drawn in by the stories within stories—the tale of an underdog team finding its rhythm, the narrative of a seasoned player defying expectations, or the arc of a rookie making their mark. Every player’s journey converges on the diamond, each inning writing and rewriting possibilities.

By game’s end, the experience leaves you with more than just a score. It leaves you with moments to recount, plays to debate, and memories to cherish. This is why the demand for platforms providing live MLB coverage is surging, making services like mlb중계 more than just streams; they become lifelines to a passion shared by millions.

In conclusion, live MLB broadcasts offer an immersive experience into the world of baseball. With every streamed game, you become part of a narrative larger than life, sustaining the legacy of a sport that continues to inspire and excite.


1. Can I watch MLB games live online if I’m not in the United States?
Yes, several services provide live streaming of MLB games that can be accessed from different parts of the world.

2. Do I need to understand Korean to watch mlb중계?
It helps to have some understanding of Korean, but many streaming services offer various language options for international audiences.

3. Is it possible to watch MLB games on mobile devices?
Absolutely, many live-streaming platforms are optimized for mobile devices, allowing you to watch games on the go.

4. Are there any free options to watch live MLB games?
There might be free options available, but their legality and streaming quality can vary. It’s recommended to use official services for the best experience.

5. Can I interact with other MLB fans during live streams?
Some streaming platforms may have chat functions or social media integrations that allow for interaction during the live broadcast.…

Basketball, one of the most thrilling sports globally, captures the essence of teamwork, strategy, and individual prowess. At the heart of this excitement stands the NBA, a league that showcases some of the world’s most phenomenal athletes and nail-biting encounters. Thousands tune in to witness the eclectic mix of dunks, three-pointers, and blocks, where every game has the potential to be a classic.

In countries far from the United States, the buzz of NBA games is equally palpable. Fans from across the globe are constantly seeking the ideal platform to enjoy these spectacles, and this is where NBA broadcasts, or “NBA중계” as it’s known in South Korea, become essential.

Without needing to be courtside, fans can immerse themselves in the game through NBA중계. It bridges the gap between time zones and distances, bringing the adrenaline-pumping action straight to your screens. Whether on a smartphone, tablet, or smart TV, the game is always at your fingertips.

The beauty of watching NBA중계 lies in the details. Quality broadcasting captures every perspiration bead on players’ faces, the intensity in their eyes, and even the swish of the net. Moreover, for the South Korean audience, commentators provide live analysis and insights, making the experience more relatable. Embracing local languages within broadcasts enhances understanding and connection—adding a unique touch to the universal love of the game.

How does one ensure they catch all the action with high-quality streams? It’s vital to find a reliable source, such as NBA중계, where the feed is crisp, the latency is low, and the experience is uninterrupted. A platform that caters to fans’ needs, offering comprehensive coverage of the season, playoffs, and finals, ensuring you never miss a beat of your favorite teams and players’ performances.

Imagine savoring LeBron’s dunks or being mesmerized by Curry’s three-pointers anytime, anywhere. This accessibility is what makes NBA중계 a fan-favorite. Now, you don’t just have to read about legendary performances in recaps or hear about them from friends. You can witness the magic unfold live, irrespective of where you are in the world.

Concluding, the digital age has removed geographical barriers making NBA중계 an essential part of basketball fandom. With the right platform, every layup, crossover, and buzzer-beater becomes a shared global experience, fueling the love for basketball across continents.


1. What is NBA중계?
NBA중계 is the Korean term for NBA broadcasting, enabling fans in South Korea to watch live NBA games through various media platforms.

2. How can I access NBA중계 in high quality?
You can access high-quality NBA중계 through reputable sports streaming sites or official NBA broadcasting partners that offer services in your region.

3. Is it possible to watch NBA중계 on mobile devices?
Yes, many streaming services provide mobile apps or optimized websites to watch NBA중계 on smartphones and tablets.

4. Are there NBA중계 services that offer commentary in Korean?
Several Korean broadcasting services provide NBA중계 with live commentary in the Korean language.

5. Can I watch all NBA games through NBA중계 services?
Most NBA중계 services strive to provide comprehensive coverage, including regular season games, playoffs, and the NBA Finals. However, availability may vary based on the service and broadcasting rights.…

When it comes to navigating the digital realm, finding a 안전사이트 (safe site) is a priority for users worldwide. From online shopping to data sharing, the spotlight on cybersecurity is growing brighter by the day. But what exactly makes a website safe, and how can you, as a savvy internet user, spot one?

Imagine walking into a fortress; the 안전사이트 is just like that—a digital stronghold safeguarding your personal information from the prowling eyes of cybercriminals. These websites employ a range of security measures including encryption protocols such as SSL certificates, represented by the padlock icon in your browser’s address bar. It’s akin to a security guard at the gate of your online transactions.

Moreover, a 안전사이트 is not just about protecting information, but also ensuring that the integrity of the site remains uncompromised. Think of a bridge built to withstand storms and heavy traffic. Site integrity includes regular updates and patches that fix vulnerabilities, similar to maintenance work on that sturdy bridge.

A 안전사이트 also prides itself on transparency. Just as a clear, well-lit sign guides you confidently into a store, these websites provide clear privacy policies and terms of service so you know exactly how your data is being used. It’s this level of openness that builds trust between the user and the website.

Engaging with a 안전사이트 should feel like a two-way conversation. Expect features that allow you to control your privacy settings, much like having a say in how a conversation flows. This could include options to opt-in or out of certain data collection practices or adjust the level of personalization you desire.

In conclusion, seeking a 안전사이트 is paramount as we plunge deeper into the digital age. A trustworthy website doesn’t just offer a shield against potential threats but also cultivates a space for safe, seamless interactions in the vast online universe.


1. How can I verify if a website has an SSL certificate?
You can check for a padlock icon next to the website’s URL in your browser. Clicking on it will provide details of the certificate and its validity.

2. What should I look for in a website’s privacy policy?
Seek clarity on how your data will be used, stored, and shared, as well as any data protection measures the website has in place.

3. Is a website with an SSL certificate always safe?
While SSL is critical for a 안전사이트, it is not the only feature. Other factors, such as regular security audits, also contribute to a site’s safety.

4. Can I control how much data I share with a website?
Many websites offer privacy settings that let you manage the data you share, and laws in some regions, like GDPR in Europe, empower you to control your data.

5. Are there tools that can help me identify safe websites?
Yes, there are browser extensions that can rate the safety of a site and security software that provides a safety rating for search results.…

In a world brimming with digital amenities, one exciting game garners widespread acclaim: 에볼루션파워볼 or Evolution Powerball. Broadcasting live, this modern marvel captures the essence of thrill-seekers everywhere, ensuring an adrenaline-pumping experience.

Imagine the electric atmosphere of a live game, where scores are made or broken with the draw of a ball. That’s 에볼루션파워볼 중계 for you – a broadcast that brings the game to life right before your eyes. An unparalleled blend of chance and strategy, this game has transcended its physical boundaries to reach a global audience, all through a screen.

Why is Evolution Powerball drawing such a massive following? It’s simple. Accessibility meets simplicity: a potent combination in the digital era. Viewers can witness live draws, participate in betting pools, and interact with a community of like-minded enthusiasts. The game’s design is sleek, intuitive, and immersive, allowing players to dive into the action as if they were right there in the studio.

But what truly sets 에볼루션파워볼 중계 apart? It’s the tantalizing unpredictability of each draw. Every moment is cloaked in suspense as the balls align to chart out one’s fortune. Will it be a sequence that favours the ardent player, or will the odds sway in an unforeseen direction? It’s this enthralling dichotomy of fate and chance that keeps eyes glued to the screen.

Engaging in 에볼루션파워볼 isn’t just about participating in a game; it’s about becoming part of a narrative woven from the threads of chance, skill, and anticipation. The bonding agent for this potent combination is the community – a vibrant tapestry of individuals from varying backgrounds, conjoined by a shared passion for the game.

As you reach the concluding segment of this excursion into the world of Evolution Powerball, here are some questions which may tickle your curiosity:


1. **What is the primary allure of 에볼루션파워볼 중계?**
The excitement lies in its ability to provide a live, unpredictable gaming experience that’s easily accessible to a worldwide online audience.

2. **Can anyone participate in 에볼루션파워볼, and how?**
Yes, most adults can participate by creating an account on the relevant platform, subject to regional gambling laws.

3. **Is the 에볼루션파워볼 broadcast available in multiple languages?**
Typically, the broadcasts have multilingual support to cater to an international audience, with specifics varying by provider.

4. **How do you increase your chances of winning in Evolution Powerball?**
While largely a game of luck, familiarizing oneself with statistical trends and managing bet sizes may offer more strategic play.

5. **Are 에볼루션파워볼 중계 results prompt and reliable?**
Yes, the broadcasts pride themselves on real-time, accurate displays of results, ensuring trust and transparency in the gaming process.…

X-Plane and XPilot

X-Plane is an open source 2D space combat simulator that can be played over the internet. Players connect to a server and compete in free-for-all and team-based games such as Capture the Flag.

The first time you start the app, a tutorial will guide you through flying basics. The home screen shows a variety of options. Tap the gear at the bottom to access settings.


XPilot is a free software program that runs on many platforms, and enables you to connect your flight simulator to the VATSIM Network. This network enables you to immerse yourself in virtual aviation, interacting with other aircraft and receiving real-time air traffic control services. This is a great way to practice your flight skills, even if you cannot afford to fly a real plane.

The software has a simple interface and allows you to choose different controls, including throttle, brakes, propeller and steering. You can also choose between autopilot and manual control. It also has a 3-level flight assist system that helps beginners learn how to fly radio control airplanes. It also has a gyro stabilizer system that helps your RC plane stay stable and in the air.

It is a multi-player video game, and its 2D graphics are similar to those of the coin-op arcade games Asteroids and Gravitar and the PC games Thrust and Gravity Force. Its gameplay consists of Capture the Flag, base defense and racing maps. It is a client-server architecture, and you can either connect to a local XPilot server or a metaserver that finds one on the Internet.

X-Plane 12 users can use a new feature called City NGP, which is designed to help you navigate through cities. This is an upgrade of Xpilot Pilot, which was initially designed only for highways. It will allow you to change lanes, speed up or slow down, overtake cars and even enter and exit highways.

X-Plane 13 and 14 users can also use the XPilot plugin. To enable it, type the command.simip or.visualip (replace with the IP address of the X-Plane visual computer). You can also enable multiple xplots by using a space between each IP. The XPilot plugin is available as a free download from the Xplot website. It is a must-have for any X-Plane user.


X-Plane is the world’s most advanced and powerful flight simulator for personal computers. It provides a realistic representation of aircraft and the laws of physics, with a fully customizable interface that can be customized to fit your needs.

The simulator is pre-packaged with a variety of aircraft and global scenery that covers most of the world. It also includes design software titled Plane Maker that allows users to create their own aircraft for use in the simulation. Several companies that produce real-world aircraft have used the software to design new models, including Atlantica Blended Wing Body Aircraft and CarterCopter.

It is possible to connect X-Plane to the VATSIM Network (Virtual Air Traffic Simulation Network) and interact with other aircraft and receive virtual air traffic control services in real time. There are two popular client applications to connect to the network, Swift and xPilot, both developed by Laminar Research. xPilot is cross-platform, allowing users of any platform to enjoy the immersive experience without having to purchase or install the full X-Plane simulator.

Both Swift and xPilot are now compatible with the new X-Plane 12, making it easy for anyone to join the VATSIM Network. X-Plane 12 is available as a physical DVD set or as a download that requires a high speed internet connection.

X-Plane 12 features include Photometric, HDR Lighting Engine that computes light intensity and spread according to the laws of physics, and Volumetric 3D Clouds that are immersive and capture the sensation of flight. Real Weather is modeled with a proprietary system that turns data from the real world into the simulation. Various airport effects can be applied such as cracking pavement, oil spills, varying water color and seasonally-aware vegetation. Microbursts, wake turbulence and thermals are simulated as well.

When connected to a flight simulator cockpit and a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI) X-Plane can be used to log FTD training hours. This is accomplished by using a master PC which runs the cockpit instruments and controls, while PC #2 feeds the two side view monitors.

Get to the home screen

The First Pilot to Shoot Down a Jet

Nearly seven decades ago, Grumman test pilot Tom Attridge flew his company’s new F-11F Tiger into the sky over Long Island, NY. He climbed to 20,000 feet, then began a dive and fired two four-second rounds from his cannons.

The Navy called it a million-to-one shot. But Attridge wasn’t convinced.

Tom Attridge

On September 12, 1956, Grumman test pilot Tom Attridge took to the skies in an F-11 Tiger on a weapons-testing mission. He climbed to 20,000 feet, dived and fired the Tiger’s frontal cannons in two four-second bursts. Then the Tiger went down.

As the bullets left their cannons, they traveled forward at around 1,700 mph but immediately encountered significant air resistance that caused them to slow to about 400 mph as they descended. They then slowed even more as they flew through Attridge’s aircraft.

He pushed the throttle to gain altitude but said the engine sounded “like a Hoover vacuum cleaner picking up gravel from a rug.” The Tiger went down into trees less than a mile from the runway at Calverton Field, losing a wing and stabilizer in the process. Attridge ejected, suffered broken legs and back injuries, but survived to continue his work for Grumman. The Navy hailed the incident as a one-in-a-million fluke but Attridge disagreed: “At the speeds we’re flying today, it could be duplicated any time.” He would later become a project manager on the LEM-3 astronaut spacecraft and return to flight status only six months after the crash.

Ivan Kozhedub

Kozhedub was a renowned fighter pilot with the Soviet air force during World War II. He earned the title of Hero of the Soviet Union three times, along with two Orders of Lenin and seven campaign and jubilee medals. He claimed 62 aerial victories in Lavochkin La-5s, MiG3s and Bell Airacobras.

On his first sortie as a combat pilot in March 1943, Kozhedub’s wooden La-5 was hit by enemy anti-aircraft fire and his engine stalled. But he managed to recover and make it back to base.

During one engagement, he squared off against a pair of American P-51 Mustang fighters. He shot down both, but by then his plane was shattered from the bullets. Williams recalled that the Mustang pilot got on the Soviet fighter’s tail and scared it off. The Soviet pilot then dropped out of formation and the American aircraft continued on to attack the task force. The wingman followed the Soviet aircraft and captured it.

John Curdes

Lieutenant Curdes, who flew a P-51 Mustang fighter called “Bad Angel,” was one of America’s top flying ace during World War II. He was credited with shooting down German, Italian and Japanese aircraft, and also shot down an American cargo plane that had his girlfriend (and future wife) aboard.

On one mission in 1945, Curdes spotted a C-47 cargo plane heading toward a Japanese airfield on Batan Island in the Philippines. The pilot was lost and running low on fuel, and Curdes tried to communicate with the crew by radio but was unsuccessful. He maneuvered his P-51 in front of the transport, trying to get them to veer off course. When that failed, Curdes shot out one of the plane’s engines, forcing it to ditch in the ocean.

The survivors were rescued by a PBY rescue plane the next morning. Curdes gave a start when he discovered that one of the nurses aboard was the woman he had had a date with the night before.

Chuck Yeager

As the first pilot to fly faster than the speed of sound, Chuck Yeager has earned a permanent place in history. But that’s only the start of his remarkable military career.

A World War II fighter pilot ace, Yeager is credited with 11.5 enemy aircraft (though half that number comes from a second pilot who assisted him in one shootdown). He was shot down over Germany in October 1944 and escaped capture, eventually making his way to neutral Spain with the help of the French Resistance.

After returning to the United States, Yeager was sent to Muroc Air Base, California, to become the project officer on the Bell X-1 rocket plane. He flew that plane more than 40 times, breaking the sound barrier on each occasion. Yeager later commanded squadrons and wings in Europe and Southeast Asia, and rose to the rank of brigadier general before retiring in 1975. He remains an active aviation enthusiast, and has advised on the filming of several films and television programs about flight.

Go Home

Becoming an Aerobatics Pilot

If you like to fly, and are not scared of dying, being an aerobatic pilot may be the job for you. This type of flying is for those who seek proficiency, precision and control in their flight skills.

Stunt flying involves balancing the aircraft’s kinetic energy in air speed against its potential energy in altitude. If mishandled, this can overstress the physical limits of the plane and cause an upset, which could lead to disaster.

Basic maneuvers

Aerobatics pilots must be adept at calculating and managing the amount of kinetic energy that goes into each maneuver. The goal is to maximize the stunt’s potential while minimizing its risk to both aircraft and pilot. A disproportionate increase in airspeed or G-load can overstress the plane’s structure and components, leading to structural failure and possibly death.

Aerobics pilots must also understand the roles of their airplane’s controls, with ailerons controlling bank/roll and rudder controlling yaw/side-slip. Pilots should know where to look for accurate visual information, as aerobatic maneuvers often involve unusual pitch attitudes and rapidly changing airspeeds.

A loop is one of the first aerobatic maneuvers fledgling pilots learn, but it requires a lot of skill to execute well. A poorly executed loop can result in a high-speed stall at the beginning, or an ungraceful fall out of the sky as the pilot runs out of speed at the top of the circle. A well-executed loop allows the pilot to achieve a g-load factor of close to 1 throughout the entire circle.

Advanced maneuvers

After you’ve mastered basic maneuvers, your instructor may introduce you to snap vertical and hesitation rolls, outside maneuvers, inverted or flat spins, or rolling circles. You’ll learn how to use the airplane’s pitch, rudder, and elevator controls to execute each one.

Once you master these maneuvers, you can fly a routine of “sky dance” movements in your own custom-built airplane during airshows and in competitive aerobatic competitions. The physical demands of the sport require a high level of piloting skill to perform spins, slides, rolls and loops along vertical as well as horizontal flight paths.

To achieve each maneuver, the pilot must balance the aircraft’s kinetic energy-the aircraft’s air speed-with its potential energy-its altitude. For example, to fly a perfect inside loop, the pilot must ensure that the entry and exit of the maneuver are at the same altitude. Pilots who do not follow this rule lose points from judges. The resulting score is a measure of the pilot’s performance.


If you enjoy frolicking in the sky and want to add discipline and structure, you may wish to pursue competition aerobatics. These contests allow you to fly a set of figures under the watchful eye of judges.

Pilots are placed in categories based on the level of difficulty of their aerobatic sequences. The category to which you are assigned defines the flight program that you will perform in competition. The higher the category, the more difficult the figures.

Aerobatics figures are grouped into sets called a “figure catalog” that are judged and graded according to fixed numeric scores. Using a notation system developed by Spanish aerobatic ace Colonel Jose Luis de Aresti, the figures are arranged into sets that are fanned out in order of increasing complexity.

The lowest of the categories is Primary, a level at which many pilots begin their competition career. A second level is Sportsman, a fun-flying category with simple figures that can be flown in nearly any airplane.


Aerobatics pilots must follow strict safety protocols to avoid dangerous mistakes and accidents. This includes undergoing rigorous training, maintaining a safe altitude, and performing a thorough pre-flight check of the aircraft. They also must know how to bail out if they become disoriented or otherwise incapacitated.

Despite these measures, airshow pilots still die in spectacular airplane crashes. One reason is that aspiring aerobatics pilots often fly their stunt planes at altitudes that are too low for the maneuver they’re performing. This is especially common in the UK, where a number of fatal aerobatics-related accidents have occurred in recent years.

Pilots can improve their safety odds by choosing a reputable aerobatic flight school and flying a well-maintained airplane. It’s also important to stay healthy and hydrated and avoid taking medications that may limit G-tolerance. Aspiring aerobatics pilots should never attempt a stunt that is beyond their experience level, and they should avoid flights in weather conditions that increase the risk of accidents.

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